Classical Greek Society and Culture. Piraeus was about five miles from Athens and had three harbors, which were a perfect location for the Athenian navy base. It was divided into four periods and the one I will be talking about is the classical period. The birth of Athena was the subject of the east pediment of the Parthenon in Athens, and the legend of Pelops and of the labours of Heracles were the subjects of the corresponding pediment and the metopes (the…, The only significant architectural work of the early Classical period was at Olympia, where a great Temple of Zeus was built in about 460. 8000 BCE: Mesolithic Period (8300-7000) Earliest evidence of burials found in Franchthi Cave in the Argolid, Greece: 7250 BCE : Evidence of food producing economy, simple hut construction, and seafaring in mainland Greece and the Aegean History of Greece: Classical Greece . One of the most spectacular achievements in Athens during this time was the rebuilding of the Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena on the Acropolis. Themistocles warned Sparta to stay out of Athens' business, and that Athens would not interfere with Sparta. During the Classical period, Greek culture reached its apex, producing great architectural shapes in buildings such as the Parthenon, philosophy and theatre. Pottery tell us a good deal about daily life. This was because there was no pay for government jobs. The Athenians were insulted, and Cimon, on the advice of an Athenian named Pericles, was ostracized. Ancient Greece: Classical period The Parthenon has echoed through history, but what part of that history do we prize, and which do we ignore? This enormous wealth permitted Athens to flourish in terms of art, architecture, literature, philosophy, and politics. But it's important to realize that when people talk about ancient Greece, they're talking about a large span of history, and most of what we associate with ancient Greece, the Acropolis, the Parthenon, the Persian Wars, the great Greek philosophers, most of that is associated with the classical period, often associated with the Golden Age. Other articles where Early Classical period is discussed: Western architecture: Early Classical (c. 500–450 bc): …significant architectural work of the early Classical period was at Olympia, where a great Temple of Zeus was built in about 460. The male form was represented as a fit, healthy and young man whose muscles and shape were carved out of the marble. There are many classical tombs at Clusium, including the Tomb of the Monkey. 1. Philosophy: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. This temple was the first statement of Classical Doric in its canonical form and…. Pheidias, a friend of Pericles, created a new statue of Athena, sculpted in ivory and gold, on the Acropolis. The Classical Period During the Classical Period, the original twelve Olympians were that main focus in Greek religion, especially Zeus. It was the civilization of Greece, from the archaic period of the 8th/6th centuries BC to 146 BC. Polykleitos. Much of what we know about this period in art comes from literature and historical writings from the era, such as those of Pliny. Polykleitos was a famous Greek sculptor who worked in bronze. This period is from 500 B.C. Greece – The Classical Period (500-336 BC). These and other artists helped move Greek art — from Classic Idealism to Hellenistic Realism, blending in softer elements and emotive expressions. After the defeat of the Persians in 479 B.C., Athens dominated Greece politically, economically, and culturally. So, it is no surprise that Pericles was a believer in democracy. Classical Greek literature is said to have ended with the deaths of Aristotle and Demosthenes (c.322 BC). A building which housed the council of citizens in Ancient Greece; an assembly hall. This was the beginning of distrust between the two city-states that had fought together during the Persian Wars. He was also an art theorist who developed a canon of proportion (called the Canon) that is demonstrated in his statue of Doryphoros (Spear Bearer) Many of Polykleitos's bronze statues from the Classical period, including the Doryphoros, survive only as Roman copies executed in marble. Classical Greek Art Key Highlights: The period of Classical Greece was the first in which artists were commonly credited with their works. Since the poor could not afford to stop working for any long period of time, they could not serve in these jobs. Greek oratory, of immense importance in the ancient world, was perfected at this time. The greatest writers of the classical era have certain characteristics in common: economy of words, direct expression, subtlety of thought, and attention to form. Desperate, Sparta asked Athens for help. The term Ancient, or Archaic, Greece refers to the years 700-480 B.C., not the Classical Age (480-323 B.C.) The Parthenon, a temple that housed the Athena statue, was built to replace the temple destroyed by the Persians. This large fleet, a result of the Persian Wars, was something new to the Greek world. This era also saw the building of the Parthenon and conflict with neighboring empires such as the Persian Empire. This was a war for freedom, and the Greeks would continue on, free from Persian rule. Greece experienced the Classical Period from 510 BC to 334 BC, a period studded with violence but famous for its cultural developments. When Persia defeated Lydia, the Greek colonies became part of the Persian Empire. Examples do exist, however, and certain generalizations can be made. Pericles is best known for holding the office of archon, or general. This article deals with the civilization of Classical Greece. Themistocles was forced to leave Athens for ten years. All authorities agree that the Late Classical period was the high point of ancient Greek painting. Some of the neighboring Greeks were uncomfortable with the idea of the Athenians building walls, they were concerned that these walls, along with the large Athenian navy, would cause the Athenians to become aggressive. The coordinator of such a vast change was Pericles , who in the fifth century BC, brought about the city’s most important buildings, namely the Propylaia, the Erechtheion and the Parthenon. His first public office was choregos, a person who funds and produces plays. The Persian Empire overtook the Greek cities of Miletus and Halicarnassus around 499 BC. Ancient Greece: Classical period. We will learn more about these wars and their effect on the Greek world in the next chapter. 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